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Test # 48


1.
curb : spur :: revere : ______

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Idiom of the Day

born out of wedlock
to be born to an unmarried mother
The young mother had two children who were born out of wedlock.
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  • Economy of India

    Corruption

    Corruption has been one of the pervasive problems affecting India. A 2005 study by Transparency International TI found that more than half of those surveyed had firsthand experience of paying bribe or peddling influence to get a job done in a public office in the previous year.A follow on 2008 TI study found this rate to be 40 percent. In 2011, Transparency International ranked India at 95th place amongst 183 countries in perceived levels of public sector corruption.

    In 1996, red tape, bureaucracy and the Licence Raj were suggested as a cause for the institutionalised corruption and inefficiency.More recent reports suggest the causes of corruption in India include excessive regulations and approval requirements, mandated spending programs, monopoly of certain goods and service providers by government controlled institutions, bureaucracy with discretionary powers, and lack of transparent laws and processes.

    The Right to Information Act 2005 which requires government officials to furnish information requested by citizens or face punitive action, computerisation of services, and various central and state government acts that established vigilance commissions, have considerably reduced corruption and opened up avenues to redress grievances.

    In 2011, the Indian government concluded that most spending fails to reach its intended recipients. A large, cumbersome and tumor like bureaucracy sponges up or siphons off spending budgets.India s absence rates are one of the worst in the world; one study found that 25 Percent of public sector teachers and 40 Percent of government owned public sector medical workers could not be found at the workplace Similarly, there are many issues facing Indian scientists, with demands for transparency, a meritocratic system, and an overhaul of the bureaucratic agencies that oversee science and technology.

    The Indian economy has an underground economy, with a 2006 report alleging that the Swiss Bankers Association suggested India topped the worldwide list for black money with almost $1,456 billion stashed in Swiss banks. This amounts to 13 times the country s total external debt.These allegations have been denied by Swiss Banking Association. James Nason, the Head of International Communications for Swiss Banking Association, suggests The black money figures were rapidly picked up in the Indian media and in Indian opposition circles, and circulated as gospel truth. However, this story was a complete fabrication. The Swiss Bankers Association never published such a report. Anyone claiming to have such figures for India should be forced to identify their source and explain the methodology used to produce them.


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